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Waters and water management

Lakes and reservoirs of Amur-Heilong River Basin
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The total natural lake area of the Amur-Heilong basin is well over 20,000 km2.  Russia’s Amur-Heilong River basin has over 25,000 lakes and a total water surface area over 15,000 km2 (71% of basin lake area).  The vast majority of these are small floodplain lakes along the Amur and its main tributaries each with surface areas less than 1 km2.  The largest lakes in the basin are: Khanka (shared with China), Barun-Torey, Zun-Torey, Bolon, Chukchagir, Evoron, Orel, and Udyl.  China’s portion of the Amur-Heilong River basin has approximately 10,000 lakes with a total area close to 4,500 km2.  The largest of these are: Khanka-Xingkai (shared with Russia), Dalai, Buir (shared with Mongolia), Chagan, and Jingpo.
By year-end 2000, there were more than 13,000 reservoirs (storage works) in the China part of the Amur-Heilong basin holding more than 35 km3 of water, or nearly 10% of the annual discharge of the Amur-Heilong River.  Xiaofengman Dam near Jilin City is the oldest large dam on the Second Songhua and at least 20 other dams are now in operation on the Songhua.  Another large dam, Ni’erji dam, was completed in 2005 on the Nen River upstream from Qiqiha’er City.    There are approximately 300 reservoirs in the Russia basin, less than 3% the total number in China.  However, just one of them, the "Zeya Sea," at 68 km3 in volume, exceeds the entire storage volume in all reservoirs in the China portion of the basin.  The Mongolia basin does not have any large reservoirs .

Lakes of Western Amur-Heilong River Basin

Lakes of Eastern Amur-Heilong River Basin

View from high terrace on oxbow lakes in Gribskoye floodplain wetland near Blagoveshensk. (Photo by E.Simonov)

Map collection:

Climate, waters and water management



Simplified hydrography of Amur River basin (Basemap)

Detailed hydrography of Amur River basin

Wetlands of Amur

Water infrastructure: dams and water transfers



Amur river system

Water management

Water pollution


GIS: Amur hydrography, wetlands and water infrastructure


Also look:

Western rivers of headwaters of Amur-Heilong River Basin

Eastern tributaries in Amur-Heilong River Basin

River between –environmental perspective on Amur water management

Water infrastructure in the Amur-Heilong River Basin

Dam development in Russia

Water management and dams in China

Water Transfers in China

Water transfers and wells in Mongolia

Development of dykes

Case Study on international planning: "Joint Comprehensive Scheme on Amur and Argun Rivers"

Is there enough water?

WCD lessons for Amur

Water pollution conundrum


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