AMUR-HEILONG RIVER BASIN

 

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Introduction

Climate

Waters and water management

Ecosystems and ecoregions

Species diversity and use of biological resources

Nature conservation: econet and protected areas

Countries & cultures

Economy

Land use

International policy

Waters and water management

Lakes of Eastern Amur Basin
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Bolon Lake is located south of the city of Komsomolsk-on-Amur in Khabarovsky Krai.  Its surface area ranges from 324-612 km2 depending upon the water level of the Amur-Heilong.  Maximum depth is 5 m and the water volume is approximately 0.5 km3 in dry years.
Hummy Lake is located downstream from Bolon along the right bank of the Amur-Heilong with a surface area of 117 km2 and approximate volume of 0.2 km3.
Lake Evoron (194 km2 and approximately 0.2 km3) and Lake Chukchagir (355 km2 and approximately 0.7 km3) are the main water bodies of the Evoron-Chukchagir Depression.  Lake Evoron discharges to the Amur-Heilong via the Gorin River while Chukchagir Lake discharges via the Amgun River.
Lakes Udyl and Bolshoe Kizi are the two main water bodies downstream.  Each is about 300 km2 in surface area and 0.5 km3 in volume.
The last group of large lakes downstream consists of Orel Lake with a surface area of 314 km2 and volume of 0.3 km3 and Chlya Lake with surface area of 140 km2 and volume of 0.2 km3.  Both are located on the left bank near the Amur-Heilong mouth.
Khanka-Xingkai Lake is shared by Russia and China, is the largest lake in the Amur-Heilong River basin, and one of the largest freshwater lakes in East Asia.  The lake is called Khanka in Russian and Xingkai in Chinese.  There are 24 rivers and streams flowing into the lake with 4 cubic km inflow and only one – the Sung'acha River, a tributary of the Wusuli-Ussuri, flowing out.  Eight tributaries of the lake are in China and the remaining 16 are in Russia.  The lake is 90 km long by 70 km wide and covers 4,380 km2 (1,080 km2 or one fourth in China).  The normal water volume ranges from 18-26 km3 and the maximum depth is 11 m.  The lake consists of two parts – Small Xingkai Lake and Big Khanka-Xingkai Lake.  The watershed includes 1,163 additional small lakes in Russia.  Small Xingkai Lake lies completely within China and has an area of 180 km2 and maximum depth of 3 m.  The Khanka Lake watershed covers 16,890 km2, of which 15,370 km2 lie within Russia.
The China portion of the basin has several famous volcanic lakes.  One of these is the source of the Songhua River, Tianchi (Pool of Heaven) at the top of Chanbaishan, a peak of international cultural importance on the China-Korean border, a national nature reserve in China, and a UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Reserve.  Others are Jingbo Lake in the upper reaches of the Mudan River, and a lake group called Wudaliangchi (Five Big Cool Pools) in the upper Nen River basin.  All these locations are important destinations for nature tourism in China.

Map collection:

Climate, waters and water management

 

Maps:

Simplified hydrography of Amur River basin (Basemap)

Detailed hydrography of Amur River basin

Wetlands of Amur

Water infrastructure: dams and water transfers

 

Photo:

Amur river system

Water management

Water pollution

 

GIS: Amur hydrography, wetlands and water infrastructure

 

Bolshoe Kizi Lake (Photo by Evgeny Egidarev)

Also look:

Western rivers of headwaters of Amur-Heilong River Basin

Eastern tributaries in Amur-Heilong River Basin

Lakes and reservoirs of Amur-Heilong River Basin

Lakes of Western Amur-Heilong River Basin

River between –environmental perspective on Amur water management

Water infrastructure in the Amur-Heilong River Basin

Dam development in Russia

Water management and dams in China

Water Transfers in China

Water transfers and wells in Mongolia

Development of dykes

Case Study on international planning: "Joint Comprehensive Scheme on Amur and Argun Rivers"

Is there enough water?

WCD lessons for Amur

Water pollution conundrum

 

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