All chapters:



Waters and water management

Ecosystems and ecoregions

Species diversity and use of biological resources

Nature conservation: econet and protected areas

Countries & cultures


Land use

International policy

Ecosystems and ecoregions
Ussuri broadleaf and mixed forests
Related maps, pictures, links

The ecoregion includes the area north and east of the Lake Khanka Lowlands, which separate it from the Changbaishan ecoregion.  Mixed broadleaf-coniferous forests extend to the north Primorsky and South-east Khabarovsky Province of Russia, and in the west include the Wanda Mountains in the middle reach of the Wusuli-Ussuri River in China's Heilongjiang Province.
For most of the Sikhote-Alin Mountains, the lower forest belts (250-350 m asl) are made up primarily of mixed broadleaf species such as Manchurian ash (Fraxinus mandshurica), Japanese elm, and Japanese poplar (Populus maximowiczii).  Species composition changes abruptly to Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) and broadleaf forests up to 700 m.  Typical groundcover in the forest understory includes ginseng (Panax ginseng), a highly sought-after medicinal plant that is now severely depleted.  The highest elevation belt of true trees consists mainly of Khingan fir and Ajan spruce forests up to 1,300 m.  Higher still – at about 1,400-1,500 m – stands of Erman’s birch and dwarf shrubs are interspersed with Manchurian alder (Alnus mandshurica) and subalpine meadows.  Mountain tundra of shrubs, lichens, and grasses is found on some of the tallest mountains in the region.
The Sikhote-Alin Mountains form the southern boundary for boreal species such as ermine (Mustela erminea), wolverine (Gulo gulo), adder (Vipera berus), and chestnut bunting (Emberiza rutila).  At the same time, the mountains are the northernmost habitat of subtropical species such as the Amur tiger and the Leopard cat (Felis leuptilura\Prionailurus bengalensis).
This ecoregion is widely known as the last stronghold of Amur tiger, with about 400 animals (90% of the remaining wild population) residing within its bounds.  However, historical records from the late 19th and early 20th centuries show that prior to large-scale human encroachment the more dense tiger populations inhabited the Changbaishan ecoregion
The three most prominent protected areas involved in long-term research of the ecoregion are Sikhote-Alinsky Zapovednik in the north, Lazovsky Zapovednik on the Pacific seacoast, and Ussurisky Zapovednik in the south. 

"Bear" Hunting Estate. Sikhote Alin' Mountains. Primorsky Province. (Photo by P.Fomenko)


Map collection: Land cover, ecosystems and ecoregions



Terrrestrial ecoregions

Global 200 Ecoregions

Freshwater ecoregions

Major protected areas of Amur-Heilong


Map collection: Distribution of charismatic species


Ecoregions& landscapes photogalleries:

Ussury forests

Small Hinggan


Khanka Lake and upper Ussury wetlands


GIS:Soil and vegetation

GIS: Land cover/Land use according to satellite imagery

Also look:

Landscape diversity in Amur-Heilong River Basin

Landscape changes throughout recent geological history

Amur-Heilong River Basin Ecoregional zoning

Global 200 ecoregions in Amur-Heilong River Basin

Boreal forests of Amur-Heilong River Basin

Tiger forests - Temperate forests:

Manchurian mixed forests

Northeast China Plain deciduous forests

Changbai Mountains mixed forests

Global 200 Dauria Steppe

Global 200 Amur Wetlands:


Full contents
Full digest
Full atlas
All pictures