AMUR-HEILONG RIVER BASIN

 

All chapters:

Introduction

Climate

Waters and water management

Ecosystems and ecoregions

Species diversity and use of biological resources

Nature conservation: econet and protected areas

Countries & cultures

Economy

Land use

International policy

Nature conservation: econet and protected areas
Mongolia Protected Areas
Related maps, pictures, links

Environmental protection has a long history in Mongolia.  Marco Polo wrote about closed seasons for hunting, and in 1709 Khalkh Juram set aside 16 mountains that were to be protected from hunting, cultivation, and timber felling.  In 1778 Bogdkhan Mountain was formally set aside as a protected area and became the first such formally protected landscape in the world. Another ten areas were protected by 1977, for a cumulative area of 5.6 million hectares (3.5 percent of the country).  The PAs Law of 1997 is now the basis for the establishment and management of PAs.  According to Mongolian law, the taxonomy of PAs include the Strictly Protected Area (SPA), National Park (NP), Nature Reserve (NR) and Natural Monument (NM), and the law clearly defines protection regimes and zoning regulations. (See glossary of PA types)  All of these PAs are the responsibility of the national Ministry of Nature and Environment (MONE), and all other land-management issues are delegated to local governments.
By 2005, Mongolia had listed 55 national-level PAs (PAs) occupying over 13 per cent of the total land area (20.95 million ha). Strict PAs covered 10.5 million ha, 19 national parks covered 8.5 million ha, 18 NRs covered 1.9 million ha, and six national monuments covered 80,000 ha (see Table below).  Among those PAs, there were two UNESCO-World Heritage Sites, three Man and Biosphere Reserves, and 11 Ramsar wetlands of international importance.  In addition, 552 areas with a total area of three million ha were protected by regional and local authorities.
Three SPAs, one national park, and four NRs are located in the Amur-Heilong River basin in Mongolia, covering 1,964,843 ha .  Also important are PAs adjacent to the basin including one SPA, one national park, one Nature Reserve and one Nature Monument, which cover another 1,874,776 ha, are ecologically linked to the river basin, and are managed by the same local PA Directorates(See Table belowand the map Dauria Steppe Global 200 ecoregion ).  Local PA directorates (administrations), each typically managing several PAs, are financed from the state budget, and operate under direct management of the Ministry for Nature and the Environment.  Two PA administration offices and three groups were in charge of protection and management of national PAs in Mongolia’s Amur-Heilong Basin in 2004.

 

Table: PAs of Mongolia and PAs within the Mongolian part of the Amur-Heilong River basin (sources: Batsukh & Belokurov 2005, WWF Mongolia 2006)


Protected area category

Mongolia total number 2003

Mongolia total area thousand ha

PA in Mongolia's Amur Basin total number 2003

PA in Mongolia's Amur Basin total area thousand ha

Percent of Mongolia's Amur Basin territory

Strictly Protected Area

12

10,500

3

721,021

3.2

National Park

19

8,500

1

425,752

1.9

Nature Reserve

18

1,900

4

828,070

3.7

Natural Monument

6

80

0

0

 

Total PA under national law

55

20,950

8

1,975

8.8

Local PAs

552

3,000

 

 

 

Total PA

607

23,950

 

 

 

 

Maps:

Protected areas of Eurasia

Protected areas and human footprint

Protected areas of Amur-Heilong (all)

Major protected areas of Amur-Heilong

Vegetation map

Terrrestrial ecoregions

Global 200 Ecoregions

Freshwater ecoregions

Dauria Steppe Global 200 ecoregion

Detailed hydrography of Amur River basin

Wetlands of Amur

Human footprint and ecoregions of Amur

 

Photo:

Protected areas in Mongolia

Introductory tour of Amur basin

Daurian steppe

Song-Nen plain

 

GIS: Ecological network

 

Dornod PA Administration in Choibalsan (Photo by E.Simonov)

Also look:

Protected areas in Amur-Heilong River basin:

Protected areas coverage in Amur River Basin

Protected areas types in Russia, Mongolia, China

Russian protected areas

China nature reserves

Protected areas planning

Cooperation between nature reserves

 

Econet-ecological networks:

WWF Vision for Amur-Heilong Conservation

Conservation along the border

Wetland conservation

Grassland conservation and migratory wildlife

Selected Amur-Heilong protected areass and proposed fields of cooperation (Table)

Major wetland regions of the Amur-Heilong River basin ( Table )

Ecological Network for Amur: The Amur-Heilong Green Belt Concept

 

Model areas for transboundary conservation:

Dauria international Protected Area-DIPA

Middle Amur –Sanjiang wetlands

Khanka –Ussury wetlands and forests

Small Hinggan Mountains-Three Gorges of Dragon River

Land of the Leopard

 

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