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Waters and water management

Ecosystems and ecoregions

Species diversity and use of biological resources

Nature conservation: econet and protected areas

Countries & cultures


Land use

International policy

Nature conservation: econet and protected areas
Grassland Conservation and Migrating Wildlife Species
Related maps, pictures, links

Among the three countries of the basin, only China has special legislation on grassland conservation.  This is dictated by the much higher degree of degradation of grasslands in China.  Land degradation is especially acute in China’s Song-Nen Plain and in western parts of the Amur-Heilong basin. China’s Ministry of Agriculture has long promoted fencing to prevent grassland deterioration.  Although fencing enables temporary recovery of grasses, it can disrupt migration of wildlife and the nomadic lifestyles of local herders.

Grassland protection began recently along the China-Mongolia border in the form of a cooperatively managed “green corridor.”  The project started in 2004 and covers an area of 4,000 km2 on both sides of the border.  Objectives include restoring grassland by planting grasses and preventing desertification by planting trees in shelter belts.  China assists Mongolia by providing technical training, equipment, and planting materials.

Retaining and stimulating nomadic patterns of animal husbandry in Mongolia is a key task for ecological network planning in the Eastern Steppe.  Deterioration of pastures near main roads and settlements has already led to the shrinkage of habitats for endangered wildlife and changes in migration patterns of some wild populations.

There is an urgent need to develop a cooperative strategy for grassland restoration and conservation, especially regarding habitat conservation for migratory wildlife such as the Mongolian gazelle.  Reestablishment of this species in Russia would have been impossible without natural grassland corridors and absence of barbwire on the Russia Mongolia border within Dauria International Protected Area.  At the same time, important populations in the northeastern corner of Mongolia are presently under threat because protection of species is not coordinated between the three countries and barbed-wire fences on the borders with Russia and China block migration routes.  If unfavorable winter weather conditions provoke massive migration of animals northwards and eastwards they will die of hunger and stress being unable to cross the border.  Even if animals do cross the border, they will be exterminated by poachers on unprotected territory. This is a classic task of ecological network planning to forecast and solve such problems.

Mongolian Gazelle (Photo by Vadim Kiriliuk)


Protected areas of Eurasia

Protected areas and human footprint

Protected areas of Amur-Heilong (all)

Major protected areas of Amur-Heilong

Vegetation map

Terrrestrial ecoregions

Global 200 Ecoregions

Freshwater ecoregions

Dauria Steppe Global 200 ecoregion

Detailed hydrography of Amur River basin

Wetlands of Amur

Human footprint and ecoregions of Amur

Threats to biodiversity in Southern Russian Far East



Protected areas in Russia

Protected areas in China

Protected areas in Mongolia

Three gorges of the Dragon River

Introductory tour of Amur basin

Daurian steppe

Song-Nen plain

Amur meadows and wetlands – Amur midflow

Khanka Lake and Upper Ussury Wetlands


GIS: Ecological network


Also look:

Protected areas in Amur-Heilong River basin:

Protected areas coverage in Amur River Basin

Protected areas types in Russia, Mongolia, China

Russian protected areas

Mongolian protected areas

China nature reserves

Protected areas planning

Cooperation between nature reserves


Econet-ecological networks:

WWF Vision for Amur-Heilong Conservation

Conservation along the border

Wetland conservation

Grassland conservation and migratory wildlife

Selected Amur-Heilong protected areass and proposed fields of cooperation (Table)

Major wetland regions of the Amur-Heilong River basin ( Table )

Ecological Network for Amur: The Amur-Heilong Green Belt Concept


Model areas for transboundary conservation:

Dauria international Protected Area-DIPA

Middle Amur –Sanjiang wetlands

Khanka –Ussury wetlands and forests

Small Hinggan Mountains-Three Gorges of Dragon River

Land of the Leopard


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