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Waters and water management

Ecosystems and ecoregions

Species diversity and use of biological resources

Nature conservation: econet and protected areas

Countries & cultures


Land use

International policy

Nature conservation: econet and protected areas
Major wetland regions of the Amur-Heilong River basin
Related maps, pictures, links

Larger ecoregional groupings:

SK-Suifen-Khanka Ecoregion,

MA-Middle Amur ecoregon,

DS- Dauria steppe Global 200

NNR=National -level protected area, NR=provincial or local protected area.

(River valley stetch-basin/ecoregion)

Larger eco-regional groupings

PA status in Russia/ only major PAs/

 PA status in China/ (and Mongolia)/ only major PAs/

Ramsar listing

Needed conservation management action

1.Lake Khanka, Songhacha river
(Ussuri- Wusuli basin/ Suifen-Khanka ecoregion)


Khankaisky Zapovednik (NNR), MAB reserve

Xingkaihu NNR, MAB reserve

Listed in both countries, in Russia Ramsar much larger than PA

Listing of International Ramsar site and joint management, extension along Sonhacha river

2.Ussuri/ Wusuli midflow (Ussuri- Wussuli basin/ Suifen-Khanka ecoregion)


No protected areas

Hutou NR, Dongfanghong NR, Zhenbaodao NR, Dongfanghong Wetland NR,

Eligible but not listed

Protection of Russian river bank, coordinated management across agencies and borders

3.Ussuri/ Wusuli lower reaches
(Ussuri- Wusuli basin Middle Amur meadows ecoregion-east section)


Ussuri right bank-complementary wetlands. No sizable wetland PAs.
Only Bolshekhehtsirsky (NNR) includes small wetland area

Dajiahe NR, Naolihe NR, Wusulijiang NR, Eastern section of Sanjiang NNR

Only Sanjiang listed,

Expanded protection of Russian river bank, coordinated management across agencies and borders, developing international NR at Heixiazi/Tarabarovy Islands.

4.Amur/Heilongjiang Main Channel
(Middle Amur meadows ecoregion-east section)


Zabelovsky NR (managed by Bastak Zapovednik), Bolonsky Zapovednik.

Western section of Sanjiang NNR, Honghe NNR, Qindeli NR, Bachadao NNR

Only Sanjiang and Bolonsky and Honghe listed, rest likely eligible, especially in Russia.

Expanded protection of Russian river bank and islands, coordinated management across agencies and borders,

5.Mountain tributaries and
Larch swamps of Small Hinggan Mountains
( Amur main channel tributaries, Zhanhe and Tanwanghe River basins/ Manchurian mixed forest ecoregion)


Limited extent in Russia, most similar ecosystems further to the north. Closest in Bastak Zapovednik in Evreiskaya Province. In Russia contains most remote salmon runs in Amur basin.

Da Zhanhe NR, Xinqing NR, Wuyilin NR

Largest best preserved wetlands of the China Amur basin but no Ramsar sites in China or Russia.

Needs establishment of complex transboundary econet for forest and wetland conservation around Hinggan Gorge. Strengthening protection of mountain wetlands in China's Lesser Xingan/
Prohibition of gold-mining in salmon rivers.

6. Zeya-Bureya Plain wetlands
(Middle Amur meadows ecoregion-west section)

Khingansky Zapovednik (NNR)
Muravievsky NR, Amurskii NR,
Tom'-Tashina inter-fluvial protected wetland  (several NR)

No sizable wetlands in China, but for islands in Amur main channel.

Two Ramsar sites in Russia.

.Joint measures needed to sustain ecological flow in Amur-Heilong main channel.

7.Lower Amur wetland plains and lakes
(Amur main channel and Gorin, Amgun rivers and other major tributaries/ Lower Amur Valley Ecoregion)

Amur Liman (estuary), Udyl Lake, Orel/Chlya Lakes, Kizi Lakes, Amgun river mouth, Evoron-Chukchagirskaya Lowland; 
5 wildlife refuges.

Confined to Russia, but most of migratory fish and waterbirds in China reserves depend on these habitats.

Highly eligible, Bolon Lake and Udyl lake are a Ramsar site. Very small degree of protection is provided by sparse network of, little percent of Amur main channel bank and floodplain protected by PAs

Establish coherent ecological network to safeguard this ecoregion, develop specific measures to protect and restore waterbirds and fish populations.

8.Argun/ Erguna River Midflow
(Argun river basin/ Dauria Steppe Global 200 ecoregion)


No protected areas

Erguna  Wetland NR, Erka NR, Huliyetu NR, no protection on the ground so far.

Higly Eligible.
no protected areas so far, planning underway.

Establishment of continuous NR network along Argun river on both sides, developing international management scheme under auspices of existing DIPA (Duria International Protected Area).

9.Great Lakes and wetlands of Dauria Steppe
(Argun, Onon and Uldz river basins/ Dauria Steppe Global 200 ecoregion)


Daursky Zapovednik (NNR) -Torey lakes, Nozhiy Lake NR.

Dalainur NNR: Hulun(Dalainur) and Beier (Buirnur) Lakes, Huihe NNR.
Mongol-Daguur Strict Reserve, no other PAs in Mongolia.

Dalaihu and Daursky -Ramsar sites,
Huihe NR also highly eligible.
Buir lake and Khurh-Khuiten valley lakes listed but not included in PA in Mongolia.

Develop Sino-Russia-Mongolian international Ramsar site and MAB reserve.  Link Daursky and Dalai NR with Argun Midflow (#8) thus securing critical habitat linkages. Upgrade protection of Huihe NR, and Mongolian wetlands in Khalkh, Kherlen and Onon river basins

10. Wetlands of Song-Nen Plain
(Songhua River basin/ Nen river grasslands ecoregion)


Exclusively in China, linked to Russia by migration of cranes and other waterbirds.

Zhalong NNR, Longfeng NR
Xianghai NNR,
Tumuji NNR, Ke'erchin NNR,
Momoge NNR,

Zhalong and Xianghai are Ramsar sites, while other areas are not.

Restore wetland hydrology severely affected by water withdrawals and agricultural encroachment.

NNR=National -level protected area, NR=provincial or local protected area.



Protected areas of Eurasia

Protected areas and human footprint

Protected areas of Amur-Heilong (all)

Major protected areas of Amur-Heilong

Vegetation map

Terrrestrial ecoregions

Global 200 Ecoregions

Freshwater ecoregions

Upper Ussury –Lake Khanka.

Khanka Lake international nature reserve

Small Hinggan transboundary area (Manchurian forests ecoregion)

Dauria Steppe Global 200 ecoregion

Detailed hydrography of Amur River basin

Wetlands of Amur

Human footprint and ecoregions of Amur

Threats to biodiversity in Southern Russian Far East



Protected areas in Russia

Protected areas in China

Protected areas in Mongolia

Three gorges of the dragon river

Introductory tour of Amur basin

Way to the Ocean.Okhotsk - Manchurian Taiga

Da Hinggan - Dzhagdy forest ecoregion in Russia

Stanovoi Range: taiga and tundra

Ussury forests

Small Hinggan


Daurian steppe

Song-Nen plain

Amur meadows and wetlands – Amur midflow

Khanka Lake and Upper Ussury Wetlands

Lower Amur Wetlands


GIS: Ecological network


Transboundary reed beds -home of red-crowned cranes. Argun/Erguna River Midflow. Photo by E.Simonov

Also look:

Protected areas in Amur-Heilong River basin:

Protected areas coverage in Amur River Basin

Protected areas types in Russia, Mongolia, China

Russian protected areas

Mongolian protected areas

China nature reserves

Protected areas planning

Cooperation between nature reserves


Econet-ecological networks:

WWF Vision for Amur-Heilong Conservation

Conservation along the border

Wetland conservation

Grassland conservation and migratory wildlife

Selected Amur-Heilong protected areass and proposed fields of cooperation (Table)

Ecological Network for Amur: The Amur-Heilong Green Belt Concept


Model areas for transboundary conservation:

Dauria international Protected Area-DIPA

Middle Amur –Sanjiang wetlands

Khanka –Ussury wetlands and forests

Small Hinggan Mountains-Three Gorges of Dragon River

Land of the Leopard


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