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Nature conservation: econet and protected areas
Land of the Leopard -Tumen River Area
Related maps, pictures, links

The South-West part of Primorski region, Russia Federation; The Yanbian Autonomus district of Jilin Province, People Republic of China, and Nothern Hamgen Province of Democratic People Republic of Korea. Mancurian mixed forests ecoregion, Changbai mountain forests ecoregion.

Conservation value
The highest level of biodiversity at Russian Far East (about 2000 vascular plants, 326 birds, 66 mammals). The nesting area for 176 birds, including 35 in Red Data Book of Russia. The important stopover for migratory birds on North East Asia flyway (2-3 millions of migrants) and very important site for the sea birds (breeding about 100 thousands and wintering up to 200 thousands). The breeding area for isolated population of 14 Siberian tigers and 30-35 Amur leopards (the whole world-wide population of this subspecies). The only wildness corridor for leopard, tiger and many other species between Russia, China and Korea peninsula.

The rapid infrastructure development of TREDA (Tumen River Economic Development Area) leads to fragmentation of habitats. The fast increasing of non-regulated tourism leads to degrades of coastal zone. The human-made fires leads to de-forestration of area. The direct extermination (poaching) of wild animals threatens the last leopards and tigers. The future plans to use this area as transportation corridor for railway, highway and gas/oil pipelines to Korea peninsula can fragment the ecosystems.

Proposed actions
Develop the Econet as the system of nature protected areas connected by the buffer zone and ecological corridors:
-create the national park uniting “Barsovy” and “Borisovskoye Plateau”on Russian side – 180,000 ha;
-establish the Hunchun Tiger and Leopard nature reserve in China – 145,000 ha;
-establish the buffer forested zone in DPRK – at least 50,000 ha;
-launch the ecological corridor along the Russian-China border and secure forest corridors to Changbai mountains;
-secure the forested areas as corridors along the constructed transportation lines;
-launch the Tumen River Delta and adjacent wetlands as Ramsar site;
-include the established wetlands reserves to the North East Asia Crane, Anatidae and Waders Networks;
-create the recreation zones on the coast of Sea of Japan with the special biodiversity conservation regime   
-sign the Russia-China-DPRK agreement on establishment of trans-boundary biosphere nature reserve;
-provide the infrastructure support for newly established nature protected areas.

Implement the conservation actions for Siberian tiger and Amur leopard:
-elaborate the Trans-boundary Conservation Action Plans;
-implement the species conservation strategy to the daily economic activity of local communities;
-elaborate and implement the program of ungulate’s recovery in leopard habitats on the base of well organized hunting game estates;
-support the anti-poaching brigades and environmental structure;
-involve the boundary guards to control on poaching along the border;
-improve the CITEC control at custom-houses;
-implement the special program to support the deer farms with concern as the sources for tiger and leopard;
-develop the safary-park on the base of some deer farms for to support predators and create the possibility for ecological tourism.
-increase the public awareness and local community involvement in making decision

Leopard (Photo by V.Solkin)


Protected areas of Eurasia

Protected areas and human footprint

Protected areas of Amur-Heilong (all)

Major protected areas of Amur-Heilong

Vegetation map

Terrrestrial ecoregions

Global 200 Ecoregions

Freshwater ecoregions

Detailed hydrography of Amur River basin

Wetlands of Amur

Human footprint and ecoregions of Amur

Threats to biodiversity in Southern Russian Far East



Protected areas in Russia

Protected areas in China

Protected areas in Mongolia

Introductory tour of Amur basin

Ussury forests

Small Hinggan



GIS: Ecological network



Also look:

Protected areas in Amur-Heilong River basin:

Protected areas coverage in Amur River Basin

Protected areas types in Russia, Mongolia, China

Russian protected areas

Mongolian protected areas

China nature reserves

Protected areas planning

Cooperation between nature reserves


Econet-ecological networks:

WWF Vision for Amur-Heilong Conservation

Conservation along the border

Wetland conservation

Grassland conservation and migratory wildlife

Selected Amur-Heilong protected areass and proposed fields of cooperation (Table)

Major wetland regions of the Amur-Heilong River basin ( Table )

Ecological Network for Amur: The Amur-Heilong Green Belt Concept


Model areas for transboundary conservation:

Dauria international Protected Area-DIPA

Middle Amur –Sanjiang wetlands

Khanka –Ussury wetlands and forests

Small Hinggan Mountains-Three Gorges of Dragon River


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