All chapters:



Waters and water management

Ecosystems and ecoregions

Species diversity and use of biological resources

Nature conservation: econet and protected areas

Countries & cultures


Land use

International policy

Countries & Cultures
Population of Amur-Heilong River Basin
Related maps, pictures, links

Uneven distribution of human population is one of sharpest contrasts of Amur-Heilong River Basin.

The population ratio for China , Russia and Mongolia is 400:25:1. Thus, a general accurate statement that the total human population in the Amur-Heilong is about 75 million people is not extremely informative.

Average population density is 35 people/km 2 in the basin, which translates into more than 90 people/km 2 in China , 3.5 people/km 2 in Russian Far East and 0.83 people/km 2 in Mongolia.

This creates a very uneven pattern in the distribution of economic activities, in nature resource use and in human pressure on natural environment.

Some population trends in the basin countries are opposite and complementary. Population growth in China is complicated by a growing discrepancy in the gender ratio. By 2000 there were 100 newborn females to 116 newborn males and this gap means that in the near future at least 10% of Chinese men will not be able to find themselves brides or marry. This is one serious source of social tension in society. The situation in the Russian Far East is the opposite; women outnumber men and for reasons that include a high mortality rate among the male population. Women live, on the average, 12 years longer than men. That is one reason why in the Russian countryside marriage with Chinese migrant farmers, workers or businessmans is no longer uncommon.

However, all the countries in the Amur basin have a somewhat similar population history pattern. The Amur Basin lies at the periphery of national territories, which in modern times experience influxes of migrants from more populated areas of respective countries. In the case of China and Russia, recent migrants presently make up the absolute majority of the present population and belong to cultural groups historically adapted to quite different natural environments. Current inhabitants do not necessarily view their place of residence as homeland; it often a temporary asylum and people are quite ready to move back to their ancestral grounds or to places with better economic opportunities. Therefore, long-term sustainable use of resources is usually not among the central concerns for these migrant based communities.

Map collection: Countries & cultures



Amur on the globe

Political map of Amur Heilong River basin

Population of AHRB in 1990s


Photo: Countries & cultures





GIS: Population and administrative division


In China growing urban population leads to rapid expansion of cities. Harbin. (Photo by E.Simonov)

Also look:

Countries and provinces


Mongolia Population

China Population

Russia Population


Cultures and languages

Ethnic groups in Mongolia

Ethnic groups in China

Ethnic groups in Russia

Migration processes in Amur-Heilong


Full contents
Full digest
Full atlas
All pictures