All chapters:



Waters and water management

Ecosystems and ecoregions

Species diversity and use of biological resources

Nature conservation: econet and protected areas

Countries & cultures


Land use

International policy

Economy of Eastern Mongolia
Related maps, pictures, links

Although agriculture remains main economic occupation for population of three provinces of Eastern Mongolia over the last 25 years development of industry also has intensified. State sponsored heavy industries developed food processing, construction materials, and light and heavy manufacturing. Most of the plants are located in Choibalsan, Berkh, and Bor-Undur. Beginning in 1990 state-run factories were privatized and the manufacturing sector began to gradually shift from large to small and medium-sized enterprises. By the end of 2000 90 percent of 850 new production and service enterprises in all three aimags were in the private sector. These enterprises employ nearly 30 percent of the working population. Of these enterprises, 35 percent were in trade, 15 percent in processing, and 14 percent in agriculture, forestry, and hunting.

The eastern region has a well developed transportation sector relative to other parts of Mongolia. It has railroad connections with Russia and provided train service connecting with the Trans-Siberian system and other outside markets. The total length of railroads is more than 250 km. In 2006 the railway did not operate at full capacity, nor did it carry passengers across the border.

In Khentii and Dornod aimag s, approximately 82-86 percent of manufacturing is in mining and processing, whereas in Sukhbaatar aimag manufacturing accounts for a smaller than average share of the economy. Khentii aimag has a flour mill, Chandagan Valley has a coalmine, Bor-Undur and Berkh have a flouride plant, and Batshireet has a sawmill. Sukhbaatar aimag has a coalmine at Talbulag in addition to several other small factories. Dornod aimag in the eastern economic region has a thermo-power station, flour, meat, and wool factories, a coal mine at Aduunchuluun, and a sawmill.

Choibalsan has one large wool processing plant and a carpet factory, both established before 1990, and both operating far below capacity. The reason for the low output of these plants is the economic disruption caused by the breaking of the strong economic links between Mongolia's eastern region and Russia's Chita Province established during the socialist period. Until the 1990s, large quantities of meat from Dornod aimag were processed in the Borzya Meat Processing factory in Russia's Chita Province, while wool from Chita Province was processed in Choibalsan. After the 1990s Choibalsan's relationship with Chita was broken. This left Choibalsan without easy access to a Russian meat market, and in possession of a wool-processing factory with inadequate supply of raw materials because the importation of Russian fleeces was cut off.

Despite operating below capacity, the eastern region accounts for substantial portions of Mongolia national meat exports. The eastern region supplies just over 29 percent (8,400 tons) of all Mongolian exports of wool and cashmere. This represents 15 percent of Mongolian sheep wool, eight percent of camel wool, 10 percent of cashmere, and 18 percent of horse and cow hair

Mining has become the most economically important growing sector in the Mongolian portion of the Amur-Heilong River basin. The region has rich mineral resources including feldspar, oil, lead, uranium, zinc, gold, and silver. Coal is a key raw material for electricity production. The eastern region has the most diverse deposits of poli-metal, spar, silver, and other kinds of minerals at 349 sites. One hundred of these are confirmed deposits of nine different minerals and rest are potential deposits not yet confirmed. Twenty mining sites of varying sizes have been developed in the Mongolian Amur-Heilong River basin (placer-mining for gold not included).

There are numerous agreements between governments and other entities in Eastern Mongolia with the Autonomous Region of Inner Mongolia (ARIM) of China , particularly with Xing'anmeng County of ARIM. These agreements typically cover agricultural production, trade in agricultural products, infrastructure development and joint measures to improve land management (e.g. combat desertification). Differences between adjacent provinces of Mongolia and China are compared in Table .


Map collection: Environmental impacts of economic development



GLOBIO human impact assesment

Human footprint and ecoregions of Amur

Human footprint and protected areas coverage

Threats to biodiversity in Southern Russian Far East

Industrial Development in Songhua River Basin (ADB 2005)


GIS: Human footprint


Web-site: Programs “Development of Russian Far East and Transbaikalia” “Development of East Siberia and the Far East” and their environmental implications: link to projects and atlas


Mongolia contrasts (Photo by E.Simonov)

Also look:

Economic development:

Sustainable future of Amur-Heilong

Russia – status of economy

Northeast China - status of economy

Russia-China cooperation

Mongolian Foreign Trade and Cooperation

Mongolian trade diagrams-2003

Comparison table on Eastern Mongolia and Xinganmeng China

Comparison table on southern RFE and Heilongjiang Province, China

Policy for Revitalizing Old industrial Bases in NE China


Cumulative impacts -how much is affected?

Human Impacts and Threats to Biodiversity

Threats to major ecosystems in the Russian Far East Ecoregion-table


"Strategic considerations on environmental issues of Revitalizing Old industrial Bases in NE China"

"Strategy Recommendations"

Our questions on "Strategy Recommendations"

Gloomy forecast of the future environmental impacts

Full contents
Full digest
Full atlas
All pictures